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Maryland Campaign
The Invasion of Maryland
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The following is transcribed from Harper's Weekly Journal of Civilization, dated September 27, 1862:

The Invasion of Maryland

          The rebels appear to have begun their crossing on 4th, and to have thrown bodies of men steadily forward ever since. The artillery crossed on a pontoon bridge, the cavalry and infantry forded the stream, the water being knee high and thigh deep. A person who watched them cross said of them:

          The rebels are wretchedly clad, and generally destitute of shoes. The cavalry men are mostly barefooted, and  the feet of the infantry are bound up in rags and pieces of rawhide. Their uniforms are in tatters, and many are without hats or caps. They are very sanguine of success, and say that when they get to Baltimore they will get everything they need. They have very few tents, the men mostly, when encamped, sleeping on the bare ground.

          Frederick is a very handsome little town of some 6000 inhabitants, built on a creek running into the Monocacy. Market Street, which occupies the centre of out picture, is the principal thoroughfare, and is usually a scene of great of activity, as Frederick is a lively place. The correspondent of the Baltimore American thus described the entrance of the rebels into Frederick:

          They made their appearance in the city about 10 o'clock in the morning, and marched in quietly, evidently having full knowledge that there was no opposition to be made to them. The force was halted on Market Street, and a proclamation issued to the people.

           The foraging parties sent out in various directions to secure cattle, returned during the evening with droves of sheep, hogs, beeves, cows, and horses.The seized every thing they wanted, and are said to have tendered payment in Federal "green backs," whither counterfeit or good, is not known. These cattle were all driven toward the Potomac. The purchases made in Frederick are said to have been paid for partly in Federal money, but mostly in Virginia and South Carolina money

          A rebel Provost Marshal was appointed, with a strong guard to preserve order, and during the afternoon the streets were thronged with rebel soldiers visiting the stores purchasing shoes and clothing, of which they were in great want. So far as we could learn, strict order was preserved.

          One of our informants states that a meeting of the citizens was called on Saturday evening, at which an address ciliatory language, and made great predictions as to the power of the rebel army not only to hold Western Maryland, but to capture Baltimore and Washington, and dictate terms of peace in Independence Square at Philadelphia. The rebel sympathizers generally attended the meeting, but the few Union men who had remained kept to their homes. At 10 o'clock at night the men were all ordered to their camps on the outskirts of the city, and the first day of rebel rule in Frederick passed off quietly and peacefully.

          The Federal flag was lowered from all the poled in Frederick, and the rebel "stars and bars" hoisted in their place. Most of the officers were quartered at the hotels and at the houses of prominent rebels, though a good many of the latter had also fled the city.

          Hagerstown, which was entered by the rebels under Jackson on the 10th, is a city of about 4500 inhabitants, contains seven churches and three banks, and is the depot for an extensive grain-growing country. Its site is a very beautiful, being in the heart of the Cumberland Valley. On either side run the North and South Mountains, about twenty-five miles apart, and along the eastern limits of the place courses a charming rivulet, the Antietam. Washington County, of which Hagerstown is the chief mart, was organized in 1776. Elizabethtown was the name given to the original settlement; but this was changed to its present title by act of Legislature about the 1813, out of compliment of Christian Hagar, a prominent citizen. A corporation charter was also obtained at the same time, and a Moderator Commissioners formed the officers of the city government. A new charter in 1846 provided for the election of a Mayor and Common Council.

          Many delightful drives are to be found around the city, and many elegant residences. An unwonted prominence was last year given to Hagerstown by reason of its being selected as the headquarters of the "Military Department of Pennsylvania," over which Major-General Patterson presided.

          The map will be better understood by reference to the following topographical sketch:

          Sugar-loaf Mountain - which our own signal corps had held but a few days ago, and upon which a signal station had been established during all the last year while General Banks was upon the Upper Potomac - is now held by the rebels and devoted to the same very important use. [It has again been seized by General McClellan since this was written. -- [Ed. H.W. ] From the point at which I am now writing the mountain can be distinctly seen across the valley which spreads out before us. By the aid of a glass we can plainly distinguish the rebels upon its summit, and the very impudent Confederate flag, of a size no less the a barn door (somewhat indefinite), which floats upon the breeze near by them.

          This mountain is only twelve miles distant in an air line; so it may be seen that we are attaining to a position somewhat nearer to the rebels that we were.

          From Darnestown as far northward as Sugar-loaf Mountain the country is slightly rolling. Beyond the Sugar-loaf, toward Frederick and northward, the country is more level and not so well adapted to the sort of fighting and maneuvering in which the rebels have been so often successful. I only ask, if we are to have a fight in that vicinity, our men many have a chance to show the stuff they are made of in a fair field fight. In what case, I should feel safe in predicting that the rebels would regret that they had not staid at home.

There is the old National road which runs from Washington to Frederick, passing through Rockville. The distance from Rockville to Frederick over this road is 28 miles. It is the old mail route, and a good one for an army. From Rockville there is another road, with the same general direction, runs nearer the river than this.

          From the road which passes through Darnestown there are several others which lead to Frederick, and one of them branches at this point. The distance to Frederick from Darnestown is the same as it is from Rockville, viz., 28 miles; but the best road is that which branches from this one at Poolesville, nine miles distant.Poolesville is only eighteen miles from Frederick.

          The rebel army evacuated Frederick on 12th, passing through Boonsborough and Hagerstown toward Williamsport.

          Eye-witnesses state that the rebel column was nine o'clock in the morning until dark passing a given point. The force of the rebels, estimated by an officer who witnessed their movements, was thirty thousand  infantry, six thousand cavalry, and ninety pieces of artillery.

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