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Lt. General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson


Born: January 21, 1824

Clarksburg, Virginia

(now West Virginia)



Died: May 10, 1863

Battle of Chancelorville

Guinea Station, Virginia



West Point: June 1846

Resigned U. S. Army: 1851

Colonel C.S.A.: 1861

Brig. Gen. C.S.A.: June 17, 1861

Maj. Gen. C.S.A.: October 7, 1861

Lt. Gen. C.S.A.: October 10, 1862

1827: Jackson's father dies

1831: Jackson's mother dies

1841: At the age of 17, becomes a constable of the county, a minor sheriff

1842: Seeks appointment to West Point and travels to Washington to have an interview with the Secretary of War. He impresses the Secretary and even though he lacks the education, earns an appointment

June 1846: West Point Graduate - 17 in class of 59

1846: Assigned to 1st Artillery Regiment

1846-1848: Mexican American War

March 9-29, 1847: Battle of Veracruz 

June 30, 1846: Brevet Second Lieutenant 

April 18, 1847: Battle of Cerro Gordo - The First Artillery was used as an Infantry unit, although his company was not involved

August 19-20, 1847: Battle of Contreras

Brevet Rank of Captain 

September 12-13, 1847: Battle of Chapultepec - During the battle, Jackson's gunners deserted, he managed to carry one gun across the narrow causeway. Jackson and a sergeant were able to keep firing. It was only when a second gun was carried across the Jackson's troops rallied.

September 8-15, 1847: Battle of Mexico City

February 1848: After 18 months of joining Magruder's unit, he rose from Brevet Second Lieutenant to Brevet Major

During peace negotiations, Jackson spent nine months in Mexico City. Towards the end, he spent time with some priests. He interviewed with the Archbishop of Mexico and was impressed with his kindness as his learning. Although he left Mexico without an convictions, it absorbed his thoughts.

1848: After peace, Jackson's battery is assigned to Fort Hamilton on Long Island. While there, he continued his religious studies.

1849: Baptized and received his first communion in the Episcopal Church

1851: Transferred to Florida                                                         

1851: Resigned from U. S. Army 

1851-1861: Instructor at Virginia Military Institute 

March 1851: Appointed Professor of Artillery Tactics and Natural Philosophy 

January 1859: Jackson marches to Harper's Ferry with a Cadet Battalion 

Mrs. Jackson says of her husband, "I am very confident that he would never fought for the sole object of perpetuating slavery. . . He found the institution a responsible and troublesome one, and I have heard him say that he would prefer to see Negroes free, but he believed the Bible taught slavery was sanctioned by the Creator Himself, who maketh all men to d'ffer, and instituted laws for the bond and free. He therefore accepted slavery, as it exited in the South, not a thing desirable in itself, but as allowed by Providence for end which it was not his business to determine." 

After returning from Harper's Ferry, the instructors of VMI give their cadets what they felt about the upcoming crisis. Jackson is silent at first and when called upon by the cadets, he responds: "Soldiers, when they make speeches should say but few words, and speak to the point, and I admire, young gentleman, the spirit you have shown in rushing to the defence of your comrades; but I must commend you particularly for the readiness with which you listened to the counsel and obeyed the commands of you superior officers. The time may come when your State will need your services; and if that time does come, then draw your swords and throw away the scabbards." 

April 17, 1861: Virginia chooses to secede rather than send troops to fight against her fellow Southern States 

April 61: Governor of Virginia informs the Superintendent that he will need the services of the more advanced classes as drill masters, and they must be prepared to leave for Richmond, under the command of Major Jackson, at a moment's notice. Within a few days, he reports to Camp Lee in Richmond. 

1861: Offers his services at the beginning of the war to the Southern cause and commissioned a Colonel 

April 17-18, 1861: Battle of Harper's Ferry 

May 1861: Jackson's exploit in capturing east and west bound trains 

May 24, 1861: Relieved of command by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston 

June 1861: Formed the "Stonewall Brigade" consisting of the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 27th, and 33rd Virginia Infantry 

June 17, 1861: Promoted to Brigadier General 

July 2, 1861: Battle of Hoke's Run                                                                                                             

July 20 - October 1861: Commander, 1st Brigade, 2nd Corps, Army of the Potomac 

July 21, 1861: Battle of Manassas/Bull Run - Upon arriving at the battlefield, Jackson is ordered to the Stone Bridge. Hearing heavy fire to his left, he turns his column towards the pressing danger. Upon arriving near the battle, General Bee's troops are in a chaotic retreat past Jackson. As Imboden's retreating artillery approaches Jackson, he tells them he will support them and to unlimber at that support. Bee states they are being driven back, which Jackson replies, "Then sir, we will give them the bayonet." This gives Bee renewed confidence and riding amongst the Virginia regiments, Bee Shouts, "Look, there is Jackson standing like a stonewall! Rally behind the Virginians!" 

October 10, 1861: Promoted to Major General 

November 4, 1861 - June 26, 1862: Commander, Valley District, Department of Virginia 

November 1861: Farewell Address to his troops 

November 1861 - June 1862: Valley Campaign 

January 10, 1862: Captures Romney where the Union garrison had vanished leaving camp equipment and it magazines 

January 1862: Loring-Jackson Incident

January 31, 1862: Jackson's resignation after being ordered by the Secretary of War Benjamin to recall Loring's troops from Romney 

February 3, 1862: Jackson writes: "With such interference in my command I cannot expect to be of much service in the field and accordingly respectfully request to be ordered to report for duty to the superintendent of the Virginia Military Institute, as has been done in the case of other professors. Should this application not be granted, I respectfully request that the President will accept my resignation from the Army." 

February 1862: Withdraws his resignation after Governor Lechter takes a letter from Jackson to Secretary of War Benjamin who assured his intentions were not to interfere with the General. 

March 8, 1862: Letter from Jackson to Johnston 

March 12-13, 1862: Jackson retreats from Winchester during the night of the 11th with Banks occupying the town the next morning. Jackson's plan was to move his troops to four miles north of Winchester and attack at dawn. Jackson felt the lack of drill and discipline would throw the enemy into confusion. However, when he met with his officers again, found that through miscommunications by his staff supply wagons were sent to Kernstown and Newtown. The men would have to march ten miles to reach their proposed position. This fact and the disapproval of the war council cancelled the plan. Jackson later cried out, "That is the last council of war I will ever hold!" 

March 21, 1862: During the evening, Ashby reports the enemy is retreating with a long train of wagons, containing the baggage of 12,000 men leaving Winchester moving eastward. 

March 23, 1862: 1st Battle of Kernstown                                                   

April 15, 1862: Jackson's forces had grown to 6,000 men 

April 17, 1862: Started off on a forced march making 25 miles on the second day 

April 19, 1862: Reached his objective near Swift Run Gap having marched over 50 miles in three days 

April 21, 1862: Jackson receives a letter from Lee on a movement against Banks to relieve pressure from the Fredericksburg area by McDowell. Jackson was in agreement with Lee and had been corresponding with General Ewell about the plans 

April 23, 1862: Jackson's reply to Lee 

May 1-4, 1862: During a march through heavy rain, soldiers and equipment become bogged down. On the 3rd, they took the stone road over the Blue Ridge Mountains behind. Jackson's men had heavy hearts leaving the valley in the hands of the Union troops. However, on the 4th, the men boarded a train for Stauton, not Richmond. This had two effects on Union command. The first was by being east of the Blue Ridge Mountains, it was a threat to Washington and McDowell's troops were kept from McClellan. The second gave Banks the impression Jackson had left the valley when in reality he was just making a round about trip. 

May 8, 1862: Battle of McDowell, Va. 

May 12, 1862: Jackson's Order to the Troops 

May 16, 1862: Lee writes to Jackson; "Whatever movement you make against Banks, do it speedily, and if successful drive him back towards the Potomac, and create the impression, as far as possible, that you design threatening the line." 

May 23, 1862: Battle of Front Royal 

May 25, 1862: 1st Battle of Winchester 

May 19-June 1, 1862: During this period of fourteen days, "the Army of the Valley had marched one hundred and seventy miles, had routed a force of 12,500 men, had threatened the North with invasion, had drawn off McDowell from Fredericksburg, had seized the hospitals and supply depots at Port Royal, Winchester, and finally, although surrounded on three sides by 60,000 men, had brought off a huge convoy without losing a single wagon." 

June 6, 1862: Colonel Ashby, Jackson's cavalry commander, is killed rallying his regiments 

June 8-9, 1862: Battle of Cross Keys/Port Republic 

June - July 1862: Peninsula Campaign                                                                                                            

As the troops moved, they had no idea where they were going and arrived near Mechanicsville on June 26 

McClellan realizes Jackson in threatening his right flank and not in the Shenandoah Valley 

June 17, 1862: Letter from Lee to Jackson 

Marches of the Valley Campaign 

June 24, 1862: Lee's General Orders, No. 75 

June 25 - July 1, 1862: Seven Days' Battle

June 26, 1862 - May 2, 1863: Commander, 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia 

June 27, 1862: Battle of Gaines' Mill 

June 29, 1862: Battle of Savage's Station 

June 30, 1862: Battle of White Oak Swamp 

July 1, 1862: Battle of Malvern Hill 

July 13, 1862: Lee sends Jackson back towards the Shenandoah Valley. It was a move to see what General Pope's reaction would be. 

August 7, 1862: Marched by roads where there was chance of being seen as he advanced toward Gordonsville

August 9, 1862: Battle of Cedar Mountain - Rallied the Stonewall Brigade by riding into an ungovernable mob, drawing his sword for the first in the war shouting "Rally, men, and follow me." 

August 28-29, 1862: Battle of Groveton and Gainesville 

August 30-September 1, 1862: 2nd Battle of Manassas 

September 1862: Antietam Campaign

September 2, 1862: Instructed by Lee to cross the Potomac and to form the advanced guard of the army of the invasion 

September 7, 1862: Jackson found small sympathy in the Western counties of Maryland 

September 9, 1862: Jackson accepted the duty of taking on Harper's Ferry, an assignment which Longstreet had refused 

September 10, 1862: Skirmish at Sugar Mountain 

September 12-15, 1862: Battle of Harper's Ferry 

September 14, 1862: After Walker and McLaws have their guns in position, Jackson orders them to start firing on Loudoun Heights and Bolivar Heights 

September 15, 1862: Jackson takes Harper's Ferry using only his artillery -- Union soldiers were quoted as saying "Boys, he's not much for looks, but if we'd had min we wouldn't have been caught in this trap." Soldiers uncovered as he walked thru the streets in respect to Jackson, in which he returned their salute. 

September 16,1862: Jackson joins Lee in Sharpsburg  85  Jackson is assigned the left flank 

September 17, 1862: Battle of Antietam                                                          

October 10, 1862: Promoted to Lieutenant General and appointed to command Second Army Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia 

November - December 1862: Fredericksburg Campaign

November 18, 1862: Lee summons Jackson from the Valley to Orange Court House 

November 22, 1862: Jackson leaves Winchester for Orange Court House -- This is the last time he would see his beloved mountains 

November 29, 1862: Second Corps, Jackson's, to protect the lower reaches of the Rappahannock  

December 13, 1862: Jackson's line was 2,600 yards, infantry was 30,000 strong with 11 rifles per yard 

December 13, 1862: 1st Battle of Fredericksburg 

April - May 1863: Chancellorsville Campaign

April 27, 1863: Jackson's Army Corps extended from Hamilton's Crossing to Port Royal 

April 29, 1863: Union troops attack Jackson's outposts at Deep Run and at Kelly's Ford 

May 1-4, 1863: Battle of Chancellorsville 

May 1, 1863 - 5pm: Jackson asks Stuart to ride forward with him in order to find a point from which the enemy's guns might be enfiladed. The spot they found was full of undergrowth and only one gun could fit in the small area. After they fired the gun and the smoke cleared, the Union artillery opened up causing confusion in the small area. Jackson, Stuart, and their staff officers escaped was nothing short of miraculous. 

May 2, 1863 - 4:30am: Jackson has his last interview with Lee 

May 2, 1863: Detachment of Union Infantry were working their way through the thickets when a single shot was heard. This caused Jackson and his group to turn back toward their own lines while he gave the order to fire. Men and horses fell dead. Jackson was hit three times, once in the right hand with two in the left arm cutting the main artery. 

May 3, 1863: When Dr. McGuire told Jackson that amputation would probably be necessary, his reply was 'Yes, certainly, Dr. McGuire, do for me whatever you think best.' 

May 3, 1863: Stuart called out "Remember Jackson!" as the troops reached the Union breastworks                  

May 5, 1863: By order of General Lee, Jackson was moved to Mr. Chandler's House near Gurney's Station 

None felt more deeply than the Command-in-Chief that the absence of Jackson was an irreparable misfortune. "Give him my affectionate regards," he said to an aide-de-camp who was riding to the hospital; "till min to make haste and get well, and come back to me as soon as he can. He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right." "Any victory," he wrote privately, "would be dear at such at price. I know not how to replace him." 

May 10, 1863 - 315pm: Jackson dies from complications of surgery and pneumonia -- His last words were, "Let us cross over the river, and rest under the shade of the trees." Jackson passes away to God. 

Cozzens, Peter. Shenandoah 1862 Stonewall Jackson’s Valley Campaign. Chapel Hill, NC: UP of North Carolina, 2008. Print.

Davis, Burke. They Called Him Stonewall: A Life of Lieutenant General T.J. Jackson, C.S.A. Short Hills, NJ: Burford Books, 1854. Print.

Freeman, Douglas Southall. Lee’s Lieutenants, A Study in Command Volume I: Manassas to Malvern Hill. 3 vols. New York: Scribner’s, 1942. Print.

Freeman, Douglas Southall. Lee’s Lieutenants, A Study in Command Volume II: Manassas to Malvern Hill. 3 vols. New York: Scribner’s, 1942. Print.

Jackson, J. T. "Letter from Jackson to Johnston." The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. OR Series I Volume V Chapter XIV. 1881. Courtesy of Cornell University Library, Making of America Digital Collection. Web. 18 November 2009.

Henderson, G. F. R. Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War. Barnes & Noble. 1898. Web. 10 September 2012. Print.

Hotchkiss, Jed. "Virginia." Confederate Military History: Volume III. 12 vols. Ed. Clement A. Evans. 1899. Holmes, PA: Weider History Group, 2008. Print.

Lee, Robert E. “Letter to General Jackson.” The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. OR Series I Volume XII Part III Chapter XII. 1885. Courtesy of Cornell University Library, Making of America Digital Collection. Web. 15 February 2013.

Martin, David G. Jackson’s Valley Campaign: November 1861 – June 1862. New York: Weiser and Weiser, 1988. Print.

Sears, Stephen W. Chancellorsville. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1996. Print.

“Stonewall Jackson.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 28 October 2009 Web. 29 October 2009.

Tanner, Robert G. Stonewall in the Valley Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Spring 1862. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1996. Print.

“Thomas Jonathan Jackson.” – Thomas J. Jackson Biography Page. Web. 29 October 2009.

“Thomas Jonathan Jackson(1824-1863). The Latin Library. n.d. Web. 29 October 2009.

“Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson.” Confederate Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson. n.d.  Web. 29 October 2009.

Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State, 1991. p151-152

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